The Constitution is a product of modern nationalism and the struggle for independence, yet there was an early project for constitutional rule in 1908, on the eve of the Protectorate, which proposed limited controls on the sultan and was based on the idea that the Japanese, equipped with a constitution, had defeated the autocratic Russian empire in 1906. It positioned itself as a moderate Islamist party inspired by the Turkish Islamist movement and went on to become the biggest party in the elections in November 2011, when Benkirane became Prime Minister of a coalition government. The Government of Morocco has been criticized for a lack of effective resource governance, which has been mainly linked to an incomplete regulatory framework and insufficient disclosure policies (NRGI). Towards New Arrangements for State Ownership in the Middle East and North Africa Corporate governance of state-owned enterprises in Morocco… Royal family members claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad via his daughter Fatima, his son-in-law Ali Ibn Abu Talib, and their son Hassan. This can have the result of creating alternative legal solutions in certain areas. Istiqlal split again in 1957, when Mahjoubi Aherdane and Abdelkarim al-Khatib set up a Berber-dominated, royalist party, the Popular Movement (Mouvement Populaire, MP), and yet again in 1959, when Mehdi Ben Barka led the left wing away to form the National Union of Popular Forces (Union Nationale des Forces Populaires, UNFP; called Socialist Union of Popular Forces or the Union Socialist des Forces Populaires, USFP from 1974). The Executive This would permit the operation of a local autonomy plan for the Western Sahara: the two Saharan provinces would be empowered to use local resources to develop the infrastructure and improve the economic conditions. The conservative Independence Party trailed in third place with 43 seats. In 2019, Morocco ranked 61 out of 137 countries included in the annual GFP review. Women were first recruited as uniformed officers in 1997. It has not fought a conventional interstate war since the Algerian wars of the early 1960s. He notes an excessive focus on laws and institutional procedures that do not translate into the necessary transformation in the status of governance and the nature of the Moroccan political regime. HTF MI 'Morocco Insurance Industry - Governance, Risk and Compliance' report is the result of extensive research into the insurance regulatory framework in Morocco. Based on the Alexandria Protocol of 1944, the League of Arab States – commonly referred to as the Arab League – was founded in Cairo on 22 March 1945. The party has been led by Ilyas el-Omari since January 2016. He also spent time training in the office of Jacques Delors, when Delors was President of the European Commission. The constitutional reforms undertaken by Morocco since the 2011 protests have modified legislative and institutional procedures, yet their real impact on governance needs to be assessed. Parliament and political parties were reduced to marginal roles, and there were severe constraints on the media. These historic nationalist parties still exist, though the PDI won no legislative seats since 2002. Communal and district courts hear personal-estate actions against residents of their jurisdiction, again, under a certain sum. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies Morocco Country Report June 2016 Prepared by: Gian Piero Cigna Ahmed Meziou With the assistance of: Nestor Advisors . However, basing his analysis on governance indicators such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators and components of the Arab Democracy Index, Benhlal points out that the practice of governance of Morocco is not as positive as claimed in the political discourse. One of the new constitutional provisions is that the regional councils should be elected by universal suffrage (Article 135): how could a democratically self-governing Western Sahara coexist with authoritarian Morocco? The French did, however, maintain the institution of royal family and appointed another brother, Yusef, as sultan. Constitutionality has a legitimizing role in Morocco, but so does monarchy. The Cabinet determines and implements public and foreign policy and oversees the passing of laws by Parliament. According to the World Bank, the value of the weapons Morocco imported in 2016 was about $26 million. Offically a parliamentary constitutional democracy, in … This is formalized in five codes that have been updated and revised at various times: Civil (1913), Penal (1962), Penal Procedure (1959), Commercial (1996), and Mudawana (for family law). The Monarchy There are three levels of jurisdiction. The concept of human rights has become a well-known and widely accepted term to use. Legal System Attempts by the Ministry of Justice to set up a multi-media public-awareness campaign on basic rights failed because of lack of funding. After the protests against the Berber Dahir in 1930, the first Moroccan nationalist groups were set up, and three young leaders became the founding fathers of Moroccan politics, Allal al-Fassi, Mehdi Ben Barka, and Mohammed Hassan Ouezzani. The King used the parties as a way to divide the political forces. In 2018, military expenditure accounted for 3.1 per cent of GDP, compared with 3.2 per cent in both 2017 and 2016, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. The national civilian police force is the National Security (Sûreté Nationale), which is an armed force of about 60,000, under the Ministry of the Interior. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies Morocco Country Report December 2017 Prepared by: Gian Piero Cigna Ahmed Meziou With the assistance of: Nestor Advisors . The parties vanished during World War II but re-emerged after the American invasion of 1943, with the foundation of the Independence Party (Parti de l’Independence, Parti Istiqlal, or Istiqlal, PI), whose manifesto marks the beginning of modern nationalism and the modern Moroccan state. Since independence, the civil- and criminal-law systems have been based on French, Spanish, and Islamic law, following French legal procedure. The acquired copyright protected images used on/as featured image of this page are: ©Hollandse Hoogte | ©Hollandse Hoogte | ©Fanack | ©Fanack | Fanack ©Fanack. The top level of local government is the region. In criminal cases, there are court-appointed defence lawyers for indigent defendants who act pro bono, but there are no public defenders. The Constitutional Court has the task of ensuring that laws passed by Parliament are in conformity with the Constitution. The Navy is the poor relation of the services: it has some modern French-built frigates, but its main fleet consists of aging patrol and coastal craft that cannot prevent fast boat smuggling across the Mediterranean. In January 2017, Morocco signed a $91 million deal with Harris Corporation to provide AN/ALQ-211 Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suite (AIDEWS) systems to help protect its RMAF F-16 aircraft fleet against electronic threats. It covers steps taken by central government and local authorities, research centres… Not only do the elections constitute an evaluation of the success or failure of the constitutional reforms that Morocco adopted in 2011, but also a litmus test for ... What is the state of security today in Morocco? Elected regional councils would control the local budget, supported by an Interregional Solidarity Fund. The October session is opened by the King. The Judicial The previous elections were held on 25 November 2011, but voter turnout was low (45 per cent), indicating the lack of trust in the electoral system. That authority, baraka, is an inherited quality passed by genealogical descent from the founder of the Alaouite dynasty Moulay al-Cherif and his son Moulay al-Rashid (1666-1672), who seized power when the Saadi dynasty disintegrated in half a century of civil war. Reform of the state-owned enterprise sector in Morocco has undergone three distinct phases: 1) structural reforms in the 1980s, 2) modernisation of th. In the early days after Moroccan independence, the Soviet Union supplied a large amount of military equipment, most of which is no longer in service. These organizations have increased several folds since the late 1990s and especially after the 2011 wave of Arab uprisings. Sultan Mohammed V was obliged to sign the Dahir, but it brought a storm of protest from Arab nationalists, who saw it as an attack on Islam, by degrading the Sharia. In Morocco, internal demands for institutional reform backed by popular support have become a major lever in assisting to establish good governance in the country since early 2011. The Military This was essentially the system adopted in the first Moroccan Constitution of 1962, but the Parliament was reduced to a single chamber for most of the 1970s and 1980s. This was a rolling process, and the final stage in 1930 saw the promulgation of the famous Berber Dahir, which was envisioned as a tidying-up process under which tribal qaids (administrators) would deal with minor criminal matters under French law and civil matters according to what the French defined as Berber customary law. There is also a small-claims legal system. FINAL DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION Comments are welcome by 31 August 2016: please provide comments to cignag@ebrd.com 2 This Report does not constitute … By bringing together a multitude of OECD instruments and expertise in different areas of public governance… Transport planes are largely US-made. Morocco has one of the larger armed forces in the region but also one of the lowest budgets. Comments are welcome: please provide comments to cignag@ebrd.com 2 This Report does not constitute legal advice. The first political parties were founded during the Protectorate, before World War II. Tweet. The most important subdivision of the MP turned out to be the MCPD, which merged with an Islamist party, Reform and Renewal (Réforme et Renouvellement), led by Abdelilah Benkirane in June 1996 (in 1998 the name was changed to PJD). Access to the Courts Within the framework of the Morocco Country Programme and the implementation of the "Advanced Regionalisation Process", the MENA-OECD Governance Programme has contributed to improving the quality of local-level policies and strengthening citizens' trust in governance.Strategic assistance was provided to achieve three … Before the Protectorate began in 1912, Moroccan law was the Sharia, with the addition of regulations in particular areas based on a mixture of expediency and treaty agreements with foreign countries. Further experience has come from participating in peace-keeping operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Serbia, and Ivory Coast. Four months after the parliamentary elections of 7 October 2016, Abdelilah Benkirane, leader of the winning Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD), was unable to form the coalition government required by law. The reason is that formation of a coalition is much more difficult than expected . The Ministry of Justice recognizes that the level of judicial competence is generally low, a consequence of the poor training of judges by the National Institute of Judicial Studies, which lacks staff and resources, and because of shortcomings in court internships. The Open Government Review of Morocco is the first of its kind analysing a country’s open government policies and practices and their institutional and legal frameworks for implementation against OECD instruments. The backbone of policing is the Royal Gendarmerie, part of the Royal Armed Forces, which comes under the Ministry of the Interior when it acts as the administrative police and under the Ministry of Justice when it acts as the Judicial Police (Police Judiciare), investigating crimes, gathering evidence, and bringing alleged perpetrators to court. The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for over 200 countries and territories over the period 1996–2018, for six dimensions of governance:Voice and AccountabilityPolitical Stability and Absence of ViolenceGovernment EffectivenessRegulatory QualityRule of LawControl of Corruption The Worldwide Governance … We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. A second generation of parties was founded between the late 1960s and early 1980s, the most repressive period of Hassan II’s rule. Local Government In 1996, under a new Constitution, the repression began to lift. Morocco: Corporate Governance Laws and Regulations 2020. Good governance is mainstreamed in all GIZ’s programmes in Morocco. The form of a constitutional monarchy was retained, and, towards the end of Hassan II’s reign and after the succession of his son Mohammed VI in 1999, the repression was eased. When he died in 1927, he was succeeded by his son Mohammed V, who became the symbolic rallying point for a modern nationalist movement that asserted his legitimacy while trying to limit his powers. Its 37 local districts are responsible for policing traffic in urban areas, policing large crowds (e.g., sports fixtures and concerts), and civil protection during emergencies. In this new paper, Mohamed Benhlal analyzes Morocco’s recent constitutional amendments, which seemed, on paper, to make significance progress towards good governance. Each session lasts for no more than four months. However, as the US State Department ‘Country Reports on Human Rights Practices‘ on Morocco for 2011 points out, courts often do not act independently in practice and are subject to corruption and extra-judicial influence. As under the French system, an investigating judge investigates serious offences and can remand a suspect into pre-trial custody. It also appoints the administrative heads of government departments, the presidents of universities, and the heads of other institutions of higher education. Professional Skill In this new paper, Mohamed Benhlal analyzes Morocco’s recent constitutional amendments, which seemed, on paper, to make significance progress towards good governance… In a context of increasing globalization, marked by the intensification of trade in a more competitive environment, the port sector in Morocco and in the world, has become an important lever for development and competitiveness of a country. The person in this position serves as a secular leader as well as the Leader of the Faithful, a title often used by Muslim rulers to indicate direct relation to the Prophet Mohammed. Morocco is the world’s largest exporter of phosphate, which is an industry controlled by the royal family and by the elite who monopolize larger, multi-sector industries and who are close associates of the mon… Morocco has made access to drinking water a priority for many years. In March 2017, the king appointed Saad Eddine el-Othmani, who is a member of PJD, to form the government. Religious personal-status law was maintained as the responsibility of Sharia courts for Muslims and rabbinical courts for Jews. He could not resist European pressure and agreed to accept a protectorate, although the French authorities removed him as sultan. The Air Force relies on older French planes, mainly Mirage F1-C and F1-E acquired in the 1970s and 1980s and American F-5E Tiger. The Communist Party was legalized in 1937 and grew through the trade unions. Buy +/-/ 1000. The Constitution (Article 80) states that ‘The judicial authority is independent of the legislative power and of the executive power’ and that magistrates are not removable (Article 83). The Navy is being re-equipped with Dutch-built SIGMA frigates. Despite criticisms that PAM is a political tool for the monarchy, the party came in second in the 2016 parliamentary elections, obtaining 102 seats. Morocco. The Open Government Review of Morocco is the first of its kind analysing a country’s open government policies and practices and their institutional and legal frameworks for implementation against OECD instruments. OECD Public Governance Reviews; Open Government in Salé, Morocco OECD Public Governance Reviews This series includes international studies and country-specific reviews of government efforts to make the public sector more efficient, effective, innovative and responsive to citizens’ needs and expectations. There are also specialized tribunals: a commercial court system that hears commercial cases involving large sums, with its own system of appeals; administrative courts that deal with initial cases involving the public authorities; independent audit courts that operate at the central and regional levels; and a separate Standing Tribunal of the Royal Armed Forces. The Army’s main battle tanks are 220 US-made M6001A, although there are still 40 Soviet-era T-72 tanks on the books. The proposed policy has not yet been put into effect, although the constitutional basis for it was laid out in the 2011 Constitution (Section IX). The Legislative Benhlal makes important recommendations about political oversight, implementation of the rule of law and anti-corruption measures to ensure that these constitutional amendments will be more than a veil of good governance. This was a common model for early opponents of European imperialism in Africa and Asia. Regions are administered by a Wali (governor), appointed by the King, and a regional council, elected by direct universal suffrage. Women have been recruited since the early 1980s. In partnership with the General Directorate of Territorial Collectivities (DGCT) and the Association of Regions of Morocco (ARM), TASHAROC wishes to study the … But individuals did not, in the end, ‘disappear’, and the repression was focused, not generalized. According to recent reports, Moroccan jihadists are continuing to join IS in Libya and are in... Morocco is still without a government. The constitutional reforms undertaken by Morocco since the 2011 protests have modified legislative and institutional procedures, yet their real impact on governance needs to be assessed. Only one-quarter of judicial trainees are women, and 90 percent are from the cities, although only 55 percent of the population is urban. Source: GFP review. The Bloc was banned in 1937 and replaced by two parties, one headed by Ouezzani and the other by al-Fassi. In August 2015, Morocco signed a deal with Russia to purchase its first submarine, an Amur-1650, worth $340 million. Such a research faces methodological and practical impediments stemming from the paucity of information on funding and other governance … The Moroccan army is notable for its large number of personnel and high level of training. The basic level includes first-instance courts, trade courts, and communal and district courts. The Transition Fund was launched at the WB-IMF last annual meetings in Tokyo by the G8 Deauville … Women in particular are rarely aware of their rights. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the reigning sultan, Abdelaziz, exhausted his money and power. The administrative-police functions include public order, public security, and traffic control on roads outside the cities. Northern Morocco, particularly the region of Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima, has historically been an area where disenfranchised youth have been recruited into violent extremist activities. Morocco ; Home; RELATED. One model seems to have been the system of regional government in Spain; when these structures were outlined in the 2011 Constitution, Article 140 spoke of the principle of subsidiarity, a typically European Union concept that refers to policies being handled by the smallest, lowest, or least centralized level of authority. Similarly, although defendants are presumed innocent and have a legal right to a fair public trial with right of appeal, this is not always the case in practice, especially in political cases involving those protesting the incorporation of the Western Sahara. Local governance at a glance The local government structure comprises 16 regions, provinces and prefectures, and urban and rural communes (Rao and Chakraborty, 2006). Each of Morocco’s first five constitutions since independence began the same way: ‘Morocco is a constitutional democratic and social monarchy.’ The sixth Constitution in 2011 added the word ‘parliamentary’: ‘Le Maroc est une monarchie constitutionnelle, démocratique, parlementaire et sociale.’ The monarchy is very old: the current dynasty dates back to the mid-17th century and is the oldest surviving ruling family in the Arab countries. Because of its history, Morocco has a dual legal system, under which civil legislation, based on the French code system, defines contract, commercial, administrative, and criminal law and provides the bases of codes of civil and criminal procedure, while Islamic law provides the basic structure governing personal, family, and succession issues. According to Morocco’s Constitution, executive power is vested in the government, which consists of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet (Article 87). In Morocco, internal demands for institutional reform backed by popular support have become a major lever in assisting to establish good governance in the country since early 2011. Economy . Tensions are already mounting between the main political parties. Morocco is currently under the Alaouite Dynasty and each King since 1666 has belonged to the Alaouite family. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are officially appointed by the King, but the government’s programme must be approved by a majority vote of the Chamber of Deputies after a debate in both parliamentary chambers. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Most significantly, under this new model the Saharan provinces would be brought together into two regions rather than shared between three provinces that also included parts of pre-1975 Morocco. April 9, 2013. Public Opinion Officials were arrested and prosecuted for crimes ranging from assault and battery to petty bribery in all parts of Morocco and Western Sahara, but many cases are not brought to trial. Authenticity and Modernity Party Both dynasties claimed their legitimacy ultimately from descent from the Prophet Muhammad, but that was a very large cohort. The military forces’ extensive combat experience in the Western Sahara has given them operational expertise in desert warfare and combined air-land warfare. Article 20 of the new constitution in 2012 states, ‘Right to life is the first right for every human being. Governance Structure Conformément à la circulaire du Premier Ministre n°17/2009 du 21 Octobre 2009, le programme e-gouvernement a été doté d'une gouvernance reposant sur trois structures : Le Comité Interministériel e-gouvernement par abréviation CIGOV, présidé par le Ministre en charge de l’Industrie, du Commerce …