reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female. Under the neck hangs a flap of furred skin called the bell, which may or may not be present in females. Alces alces alces Myre Norway From Denali National Park. Moose will also communicate chemically by scent-marking trees. Moose are not known to have good eye sight. Moose require access to both young forest for browsing and mature forest for shelter and cover. Gaillard, J., M. Festa-Bianchet, N. Yoccoz. Afterward, he searches for other females who have not yet been bred by other bulls. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! Ballard, W., V. Van Ballenberghe. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. Whether or not predators can hold (regulate) a moose population at an equilibrium point is controversial. Ecography 28, no. 173-221 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. Predator-Prey Relationships. Accessed May 2, 2020. 1996. [18] This decline has been attributed to opening of roads and landscapes into the northern range of moose, allowing deer to become populous in areas where they were not previously common. In Mongolia and China, where poaching took a great toll on moose, forcing them to near extinction, they are protected, but enforcement of the policy is weak and demand for traditional medicines derived from deer parts is high. Alces, 34: 279-286. Dr. Valerius Geist, who emigrated to Canada from the Soviet Union, wrote in his 1999 book Moose: Behaviour, Ecology, Conservation: In Sweden, no fall menu is without a mouthwatering moose dish. 2007. Moose populations are relatively stable in Siberia and increasing on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Pp. [84] The size and growth rate of antlers is determined by diet and age; symmetry reflects health. These migrations can exceed 300km in European populations. Since 1963, the program has continued at Kostroma Moose Farm, which had a herd of 33 tame moose as of 2003. The hoof of the fourth digit is broader than that of the third digit, while the inner hoof of the third digit is longer than that of the fourth digit. Predation by wolves is higher in the winter when snow depths are high enough to impede the movement of moose. In Sweden, there was a debate in the late 18th century about the national value of using the moose as a domestic animal. Antlers of North American moose are palmate, having a main palm and brow palm in a butterfly configuration. Moose herbivory in taiga: effects on biogeochemistry and vegetation dynamics in primary succession. a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Alces alces Name Synonyms Alces alce Alces antiquorum Alces coronatus Alces europaeus Alces jubata Alces machilis Alces muswa Richardson, 1852 Alces palmatus Alces runnymedensis Hay, 1923 Cervus alces Linnaeus, 1758 Homonyms Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Common names Alce in Spanish Alce in Portuguese Alce euroasiatico in Italian [40] Biologists studying moose populations typically use warm-season, heat-stress thresholds of between 14 and 24 °C (57 and 75 °F). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. For moose in Poland, 87% of their diet consisted of trees and shrubs with the most important species being pine (Pinus silvestris), which represented 52% of their diet. Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia. Déscription : L’orignal mâle adulte, doté de son panache complet, est l’animal le plus imposant de l’Amérique du Nord. While the flesh has protein levels similar to those of other comparable red meats (e.g. Moose also draw many tourists for wildlife viewing opportunities. Its antlers consisted of a horizontal bar 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) long, with no tines, ending in small palmations. This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. Lundmark, Caroline. Incidental mortality. Traductions en contexte de "alces" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : Both E. rangiferi and E. alces also seem capable of causing disease in some other species of cervids, in addition to their natural host (Lankester and Fong, 1989). (Bubenik, 2007; Wilson and Ruff, 1999), Males are distinguished by carrying the largest antlers of any mammal, which can weigh as much as 35 kg in North American moose. Vahteristo, L., Lyytikäinen, T., Venäläinen, E. R., Eskola, M., Lindfors, E., Pohjanvirta, R., & Maijala, R. (2003). Vol. Farther east, it survived in Alsace and the Netherlands until the 9th century as the marshlands in the latter were drained and the forests were cleared away for feudal lands in the former. Sweden is less than half as large as the Canadian province of British Columbia, but the annual take of moose in Sweden—upward of 150,000—is twice that of the total moose harvest in North America. Cadmium intake of moose hunters in Finland from consumption of moose meat, liver and kidney. Home range size of males tend to be larger than females. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. Live weights of males range from 360 to 600 kg with lengths from 2.4 to 3.1 m. Females range from 270 to 400 kg with lengths 2.3 to 3.0 m. The largest subspecies of moose, Alces alces gigas, occurs in Alaska with a maximum weight of 771 kg for a male and 573 kg for a female. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Ungulates in western forests: Habitat requirements, population dynamics, and ecosystem processes. [102] Typically, however, the antlers of a mature bull are between 1.2 m (3.9 ft) and 1.5 m (4.9 ft). Unlike other large, hooved mammals, such as horses, moose can kick in all directions including sideways. Plant diversity is typically low and the growing season is short. Franzmann, A. W., LeResche, R. E., Rausch, R. A., & Oldemeyer, J. L. (1978). They also have a tough tongue, lips and gums, which aid in the eating of woody vegetation. [55] The last proven sighting of a moose in New Zealand was in 1952. Cows select mates based on antler size. [107], Moose lack upper front teeth, but have eight sharp incisors on the lower jaw. [94], Both male and female moose have a dewlap or bell,[95] which is a fold of skin under the chin. Reproductive characteristics of Alaskan moose. Ecology and management of large mammals in North America. Franzmann, A. The moose is a browsing herbivore and is capable of consuming many types of plant or fruit. Moose have been known to dive over 18 feet (5.5 m) to reach plants on lake bottoms,[115] and the complex snout may assist the moose in this type of feeding. In Sweden alone, 4,500 occur per year on average, as well as 10 to 15 human fatalities. [144] When harassed or startled by people or in the presence of a dog, moose may charge. Child, K. 2007. At present in Poland, populations are recorded in the Biebrza river valley, Kampinos, and in Białowieża Forest. Cervalces carnutorum was soon followed by a much larger species called Cervalces latifrons (broad-fronted stag-moose). Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. It is an appropriate name because moose primarily browse upon the stems and twigs of woody plants in the winter and the leaves and shoots of deciduous plants in the summer. (Bubenik, 2007; Engan, 2001; Novak, 1999), Moose are sexually dimorphic, with males being more than 40% heavier than females. 2002. Il possède un nez large, une petite queue, de longues pattes, un cou assez court, des sabots élargis et palmés. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). National Science Foundation [35] For unknown reasons, the moose population is declining rapidly in the Midwest.[18]. [96], The tail is short (6 cm to 8 cm in length) and vestigial in appearance; unlike other ungulates the moose tail is too short to swish away insects.[97]. [11], Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, which is also called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti". "Alces alces" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. These outputs can be rapidly created from a broad suite of comparative scenarios, and then saved to your unique user account for future reference and display. Outside of the rutting period, males and females are sexually segregated: males and females are separated spatially, temporally, and/or by habitat. These plants are rather low in sodium, and moose generally need to consume a good quantity of aquatic plants. The Pleistocene epoch was a time of gigantism, in which most species were much larger than their descendants of today, including exceptionally large lions, hippopotamuses, mammoths, and deer. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27, no. Zoology 112, no. 403-439 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. ALCES Online provides fast, attractive, and customizable maps, graphs and tables. [114] Moose are excellent swimmers and are known to wade into water to eat aquatic plants. Scrafford, Matthew A., and Mark S. Boyce. Naturaliste Canadien, 101: 117-130. Nous avons étudié la densité hivernale et la taille du territoire du loup (Canis lupus) aux Yukon Flats, en Alaska, où l’orignal (Alces alces) était la seule proie ongulée. 2007. 2008. 1999. A cervine-shape, without palmation, is more common in European moose (Alces alces alces) and Manchurian moose (A. a. cameloides). Ils étaient armés de défenses pour se battre, mais les élans les perdirent au cours de l'évolution pour acquérir les bois immenses et spectaculaires qui les caractérisent désormais dans le règne animal. Moose are not usually aggressive towards humans, but can be provoked or frightened to behave with aggression. Moose collisions have prompted the development of a vehicle test referred to as the "moose test" (Swedish: Älgtest, German: Elchtest). Keller, Anna, Marcus Clauss, Evelyne Muggli, and Karl Nuss. The young will stay with the mother until just before the next young are born. Telfer, Edmund S., and John P. Kelsall. [citation needed], Their fur consist of two layers; top layer of long guard hairs and a soft wooly undercoat. Walker's Mammals of the World. Such a division has caused confusion and does not represent the latest genetic research. Males make a grunt to court females or challenge other bulls. Moose have very acute hearing due in part to the large external surface area of their ears. (Bowyer, et al., 2003; Schwartz and Hundertmark, 1993; Hundertmark, et al., 2002; Schwartz, 1992; Schwartz, 2007), Moose breed in September and October of each year. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. [137], Moose are also subject to various diseases and forms of parasitism. This is bigger than even the Irish elk (megacerine), which was 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) tall at the shoulders. Most of their time centers around feeding. RESUME. The East Asian moose populations confine themselves mostly to the territory of Russia, with much smaller populations in Mongolia and Northeastern China. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Moose foraging can inhibit the growth of young trees. Brockman, Christopher J., William B. Collins, Jeffery M. Welker, Donald E. Spalinger, and Bruce W. Dale. "Alces americanus" Ecology and Management of the North American Moose. (Geist, et al., 2008; Henttonen, et al., 2008; Novak, 1999; Timmermann, 2003), Alces, which has been traditionally classified as a monotypic genus, has been recently divided into two species by some researchers: the European species, Alces alces, and the North American species, Alces americanus. Their long legs and bone structure suggest an animal that was adapted to running at high speeds over rough terrain.[172][173]. Moose can become severely infested with winter ticks and death can sometimes result in winter as a result of blood loss and nutritional stress. En Amérique du Nord, l'aire de répartition des orignaux comprend presque … [18][38] Predation of moose calves by brown bear is also significant. Pp. Beyond the incalculable cost in terms of human life, moose collisions cause significant property damage, escalate insurance premiums, can cause a local moose population to decline and reduce recreational opportunities. However, this does not appear to be a problem. Kielland, K., J. Bryant. 247-273 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. Moose and forest problems in Russia. Most adult male moose have distinctive broad, palmate ("open-hand shaped") antlers; most other members of the deer family have antlers with a dendritic ("twig-like") configuration. young are relatively well-developed when born. 141-171 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. The Anchorage Visitor Centers warn tourists that "...a moose with its hackles raised is a thing to fear. Alaskan moose have been reported to successfully fend off attacks from both black and brown bears. The upper lip overhangs the lower lip and between its nostrils is a triangular patch of bare skin. (3 months)Calves stay near their mothers at all times. 2008. (Wilson and Ruff, 1999), Moose are hunted throughout much of their range and provide millions of pounds in meat to humans each year. Seasonal movements of moose in Europe. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. In 2002, populations of the United States and Canada were estimated at 1,000,000. In northern Europe, the moose botfly is a parasite whose range seems to be spreading.[138]. A moose that has been harassed may vent its anger on anyone in the vicinity, and they often do not make distinctions between their tormentors and innocent passers-by. [88], The moose proboscis is distinctive among the living cervids due to its large size; it also features nares that can be sealed shut when the moose is browsing aquatic vegetation. [109][110] A moose's diet often depends on its location, but they seem to prefer the new growths from deciduous trees with a high sugar content, such as white birch, trembling aspen and striped maple, among many others. 2003. are the most preferred forage where available. Moose exhibit two different types of breeding strategies: tundra moose in Alaska form harems and taiga moose form transient pair bonds. 5 (2019): 667-692. Franzmann, A. Libralces existed until the middle Pleistocene epoch and were followed briefly by a species called Cervalces carnutorum. Reproduction, natality, and growth. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press. [84], The male's antlers grow as cylindrical beams projecting on each side of the head at right angles to the midline of the skull, and then fork. The wapiti appeared very similar to the red deer of Europe (which itself was almost extinct in Southern Britain) although it was much larger and was not red;[10] the two species are indeed closely related, though distinct behaviorally and genetically. Morphological and behavioral adaptations of moose to climate, snow, and forage. The size of the moose varies. Populations expanded greatly with improved habitat and protection, but now the moose population is declining rapidly. It was gone from Switzerland by the year 1000, from the western Czech Republic by 1300, from Mecklenburg in Germany by c. 1600, and from Hungary and the Caucasus since the 18th and 19th century, respectively. The largest confirmed size for this species was a bull shot at the Yukon River in September 1897 that weighed 820 kg (1,808 lb) and measured 2.33 m (7.6 ft) high at the shoulder. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. [140] Males will fight for access to females. Journal of Wildlife Research, 1: 138-147. The moose's body weight per surface area of footprint is about twice that of the caribou's. [139] The males are polygamous and will seek several females to breed with. Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream). "Linking moose habitat selection to limiting factors." Moose typically inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Kuznetsov, G. 2002. Alces alces, aussi connu sous le nom d'élan (en Eurasie) ou orignal (en Amérique du Nord), est une espèce de mammifères de la famille des Cervidae.Le genre Alces est … The lower prong of this fork may be either simple, or divided into two or three tines, with some flattening. Thus, the moose's digestive system has evolved to accommodate this relatively low-fiber diet. estimate of 4,000 and in Vermont the numbers were down to 2,200[when?] [20][21] The range includes Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and smaller areas of Washington and Oregon. L'Orignal (Alces alces Americana) Orignal mâle: Orignal femelle: Description : L’orignal mâle adulte, doté de son panache complet, est l’animal le plus imposant de l’Amérique du Nord. Gestation averages about 231 days with cows giving birth to one calf on average, although twins are common. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. [57], Bull moose have antlers like other members of the deer family. 296-340 in C Zabel, R Anthony, eds. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13: 58-63. Schwartz, C. 2007. In hot weather, moose are often found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds. [127][128] Wolverine (Gulo gulo) are most likely to eat moose as carrion but have killed moose, including adults, when the large ungulates are weakened by harsh winter conditions.

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